Mince: To cut into tiny pieces, usually with a knife.
Parboil: To partially cook by boiling. Usually done to prepare food for final cooking by another method.
Poach: To cook gently over very low heat in barely simmering liquid just to cover.
Purée: To mash or grind food until completely smooth, usually in a food processor, blender, sieve, or food mill.
Reduce: To thicken a liquid and concentrate its flavor by boiling.